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Defeating the Russians on the Eastern front

During the summer of 1915, in Galicia and in Poland on the Eastern front, the German and Austro-Hungarian armies were on the advance, causing the Russians heavy casualties and forcing them to retreat. Due to heavy losses in the earlier Gorlice–Tarnów Offensive in May and June the Russian Army as a whole was already roughly 30% short of its nominal strength and found itself in an exposed position in Poland.

© / W. Wildeman- van Dam [CC-BY-SA]

In July, the Central Powers' armies opened a new series of offensives across the entire Eastern front. Especially the Germans advanced quickly to the far north of Poland and into Lithuania, whereas the Austro-Hungarians would finally regain large parts of their territories in Galicia which they lost during the first months of the war. This would include the city of Przemysl which had been under siege by the Russians after their crushing defeat of the Austro-Hungarian garrison. By mid-July 1915, the entire Russian line had been pushed back as far as 160 km to the Bug River, leaving only a small portion of Poland in Russian hands. On 22 July, the joint armies of the Central Powers crossed the Vistula river and in August Warsaw became isolated because of the continuing Russian retreat, offering the German 12th Army the opportunity to conquer the city on 4–5 August. Ongoing attacks by the German armies soon caused the Russian front to collapse and, after having received considerable reinforcements, they took Brest-Litovsk (on 25 August) and a month later Hindenburg's forces captured Vilna. The overall advance of the Central Powers on the Eastern front during the Summer of 1915 is important, because it marks the beginning of Russia’s later removal from the war in 1917.

© / Bodo A. W. Müller [CC-BY-SA]

On this website there is a large number of fascinating firsthand accounts of the various events on the Eastern front to be found. There is for instance the war diary of Wilhelm Habermann. Habermann was a so called Fahnenschmied, a certified blacksmith within the 46th Field Artilleray Regiment from Lower Saxony. He took part in actions both on the Western and Eastern front. On 5 May 1915 he writes in his diary that he considers warfare at the Eastern front easier than in France (“Das Kriegführen ist hier leichter als in Frankreich”). Habermann ends his diary on 1 August, just after his regiment reached Warsaw.
Another very interesting account of how the German military advanced in Poland and beyond is given by an NCO in the German Railroad Engineering Corps posted to the Eastern Front ]. The pictures he made during his stay at the front give an inight in the tremendous efforts that were made to keep up or rather rebuilt the infrastructures to ensure the ongoing logistics of the advance.

And there are also the heartbreaking stories of soldiers who fell far away from home. We can read the farewell letter full of regret and uncertainty that Richard Pick wrote in March 1915 to his wife just before he departed for the Eastern front. It was to be his last letter as well, as Richard died a few months later, on 15 June 1915.

© / Brigitte Pick [CC-BY-SA]

You can also have a look at the memorabilia of Konrad Mayr that his offspring shared with us. Only 16 years old he had just left school to take part in the German war efforts on the Eastern front. He was lucky enough to survive the war as he died in 1976. Also very young, but much less fortunate was student-architect Max Klawitter. Eager to escape his father’s home rule he had enlisted in August 1914. You can read what he wrote to his parents about his life at the front until he died on 22 June 1915.And how about reading Stabsartzt Otto Kaschel’s story who was awarded a Russian medal for medical services, or taking a look at the pictures that baker Willy Finger took of what he saw on the front.

In addition to these personal stories you can also see some spectacular footage from the Eastern Front from the original newsreels that were shown in those days, with moving images from marching soldiers, destroyed landscapes, tired Russian PoWs and captured artillery.There is even a complete filmed report on the Capture of Przemysl as shot an Austro-Hungarian army film crew. For more than 2.500 stories on the Eastern Front just click on the Eastern Front button on the Browse page.

Europeana 1914-1918 photos and memorabilia now on Wikimedia Commons

We are happy to announce that a highly curated set of materials from the collection on this website has now been made available via Wikimedia Commons. Because of the enormous reach and breadth of Wikipedia, with millions of articles in all the world’s languages, having the material appear in Wikipedia articles is an excellent way of communicating the stories connected to the items to a wider audience.

Already some of the content is finding its way to articles, not only about the First World War itself, but also to more general articles. Look at this image of a 1917 travel document for example: the item was contributed at the Europeana 1914-1918 collection day in Dublin and it is now used in the Wikipedia article "Travel document", where the image is used to add historic context to the concept, as well as in the article on the French village of Boulogne-sur-Mer, because the document applied to that specific town. Other great examples are this image of a lighter (in the article “Lighter”) and this image of a ferry in the German article "Dampfschiffahrts-Gesellschaft für den Nieder- und Mittelrhein".

If you’re a WW1 historian - either as an individual or as representative from a heritage organisation - we call upon you to use the Europeana 1914-1918 material in articles you feel connected with or are an expert in. Anyone can edit Wikipedia; that means that you can too and there is an excellent tutorial that guides you through the process.
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